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Today in History
Famous Birthdays
 Encyclopaedia Britannica

*1928Born on this day in 1928, George Robert Phillips McFarland more commonly known as "Spanky", started his celebrity career as a model, appearing on posters for a Dallas bakery. His success selling bread led to appearances in other commercials, and one of these caught the attention of Hal Roach.
He was signed onto The Gang at age 3, and was its top star throughout the 1930's.
His last role as a child star was in "Johnny Doughboy," in which he appeared with Jane Withers, though he had a few additional credits after that.
As an adult, he served in the Air Force, flipped hamburgers, briefly hosted a TV show, then settled in as a sales-rep for Philco-Ford TV.
He died in Grapevine, Texas on June 30, 1993.
*1879American poet Wallace Stevens, whose work explores the interaction of reality and what man can make of reality in his mind, was born in Reading, Pennsylvania. 
*1869Born this day in 1869, Mahatma Gandhi was the leader of the Indian nationalist movement against British rule and is esteemed internationally for his doctrine of nonviolence in pursuit of social and political change. 
2001NATO, for the first time, invoked a treaty clause that stated that an attack on one member is an attack on all members. The act was in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States. 
2001The U.S. Postmaster unveiled the "Tribute to America" stamp. The stamp was planned for release the next month.  
1998About 10,000 Turkish soldiers cross into northern Iraq and attacked Kurdish rebels.  
1998Hawaii sued petroleum companies, claiming state drivers were overcharged by about $73 million a year in price-fixing.  
1996Mark Fuhrman was given three years' probation and fined $200 after pleading no contest to perjury at O.J. Simpson's trial.  
1993Opponents of Russian President Boris Yeltsin fought police and set up burning barricades.  
1990The Allies ceded their rights to areas they occupied in Germany.  
1989In Leipzig, East Germany a protest took place demanding the legalization of opposition groups and the adoption of democratic reforms.  
1988Pakistan's Supreme Court ordered free elections.  
1985Rock Hudson died from the AIDS virus at the age of 59.  
1967Thurgood Marshall was sworn in. He was the first African-American member of the U.S. Supreme Court.  
1962U.S. ports were closed to nations that allowed their ships to carry arms to Cuba, ships that had docked in a socialist country were prohibited from docking in the United States during that voyage, and the transport of U.S. goods was banned on ships owned by companies that traded with Cuba.  
1959"The Twilight Zone" debuted on CBS-TV. The show ran for 5 years for a total of 154 episodes.  
1958Guinea, the French colony in West Africa, proclaimed its independence. Sekou Toure was the first president of the Republic of Guinea.  
1955"Alfred Hitchcock Presents" debuted on CBS-TV.  
1953"Person to Person" debuted on CBS-TV.  
1950"Peanuts," the comic strip created by Charles M. Schulz, was published for the first time in seven newspapers.  
1949"The Aldrich Family" debuted on NBC-TV.  
1948The first automobile race to use asphalt, cement and dirt roads took place in Watkins Glen in New York. It was the first road race in the U.S. following World War II.  
1947The Federatino Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) formally established Formula One racing in Grand Prix competition.  
1944The Nazis crushed the Warsaw Uprising.  
1941Operation Typhoon was launched by Nazi Germany. The plan was an all-out offensive against Moscow.  
1940During World War II, the HMS Empress was sunk while carrying child refugees from Britain to Canada.  
1937Warner Bros. released "Love Is on the Air." Ronald Reagan made his acting debut in the motion picture. He was 26 years old.  
1935Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie ordered mobilization upon learning that Italian forces had crossed the frontier to begin the Italo-Ethiopian War. 
1933"Red Adams" debuted on NBC radio.  
1929"The National Farm and Home Hour" debuted on NBC radio.  
1925Scottish inventor John Logie Baird completed the first transmission of moving images.  
1924The Geneva Protocol adopted the League of Nations.  
1920The Cincinnati Reds and the Pittsburgh Pirates played the only triple-header in baseball history. The Reds won 2 of the 3 games.  
1919U.S. President Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyzed.  
1908Addie Joss of Cleveland pitched the fourth perfect game in major league baseball history.  
1895Ruth Cheney Streeter was born. She became the first director of the U.S. Marine Corps Women's Reserve.  
1890Groucho Marx was born in New York. He is known for the "Marx Brothers" movies and his quiz show "You Bet Your Life."  
1889The first international Conference of American States began in Washington, DC.  
1876The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas opened. It was the state's first venture into public higher education. The school was formally dedicated 2 days later by Texas Gov. Richard Coke.  
1870Rome was made the capital of Italy.  
1869Mahatma (Mohandas) K Gandhi was born. He was known for his advocacy of non-violent resistance to fight tyranny.  
1836Charles Darwin returned to England after 5 years of acquiring knowledge around the world about fauna, flora, wildlife and geology. He used the information to develop his "theory of evolution" which he unveiled in his 1859 book entitled The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.  
1835The first battle of the Texas Revolution took place near the Guadalupe River when American settlers defeated a Mexican cavalry unit.  
1780British army officer John André was executed by the Americans as a spy after conducting secret meetings with American General Benedict Arnold during the American Revolution. 
1492King Henry VII of England invaded France.  
1452Richard III was born. He married the widow of the Prince of Wales and then imprisoned his mother-in-law for life.  
Asterisks (*) denotes birthday

Famous Birthdays
1978 - Ayumi Hamasaki
1970 - Kelly Ripa
1955 - Lorraine Bracco
1951 - Sting
1948 - Donna Karan
1945 - Don McLean
1938 - Rex Reed
1928 - George "Spanky" McFarland
1895 - Bud Abbott
1890 - Groucho Marx
1869 - Mahatma Gandhi

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